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Zhitomir Sights | Sergei Korolev Space Museum
Individual and group tours to Zhitomir

Ukraine Zhitomir Sights - Sergei Korolev Space Museum
"Space Race" - intense competition in the field of space exploration between Soviet Union and United States from 1957 to 1975. Some of the events of the race are launching satellites, animals and humans space flights as well as landing on the Moon.

The origins is in the German development of long-range missiles during Second World War - the rocket "V-2" but the start of Space Race was given October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite "Sputnik-1".

Important dates of Space Race were:
October 4, 1957 - The first artificial satellite "Sputnik-1"
November 3, 1957 - The first animal in orbit - dog Laika
August 19, 1960 - flying dogs Belka and Strelka. After orbital flight dogs returned safely to the Earth
April 12, 1961 - The first manned space flight (Yuri Gagarin)
June 16, 1963 - The first woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova)
March 18, 1965 - The first exit of astronaut Alexey Leonov into open space
February 3, 1966 - The first soft landing on the Moon. The first pictures from the moon's surface
March 1, 1966 - The first unit which reached Venus - "Venus-3"
September 15-21, 1968 - The first flight around the Moon and return the spaceship to the Earth (two turtles).
July 21, 1969 - The first flight to the Moon with the landing on the surface by astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins
April 23, 1971 - The first space station "Salyut-1"
December 2, 1971 - The first soft landing on Mars by "Mars-3"
July 15, 1975 - The first joint international manned flight and docking of two spacecraft states. Astronauts - Thomas Stafford, Vance Brand, Donald Slayton (Apollo, USA) and Alexey Leonov and Valery Kubasov (Soyuz, USSR).

In 1880 Russian scientist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky developed the theory of multistage rockets capable of reaching the Space. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky formula is still used in the development of missiles. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky also made the first theoretical description of an artificial satellite of Earth.

Based on theoretical works of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky academician-designer Sergei Korolev took over practical application and development of the necessary technology and machines. Sergei Korolev - a Soviet scientist, designer and production manager of Soviet Union space rocketry and founder of practical astronautics. Because of his ideas was launched the first Earth satellite and the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

Except Yuri Gagarin there were twenty contenders for the first flight into the Space. Candidates recruited specifically among fighter pilots who have already experience of congestion, stress and pressure differences. The selection of the first group of cosmonauts carried out on the basis of medical, psychological and other requirements: age 25-30 years, the growth of no more than 170 cm, max weight 70-72 kg, the ability to adapt and stratospheric altitude, speed of reaction, physical strength, mental balance. Who will be first to fly into the Space choosed at the last moment - they were Yuri Gagarin and his backup Gherman Titov.

After completing one revolution around the Earth in 108 minutes the spaceship "Vostok-1" completed flight. So Yuriy gagarin became the first man who flew in the Space. After Yuri Gagari visited about 30 countries with mission of Peace.

Sergei Korolev was born in Zhitomir in Russian Empire (now is Ukraine). It was here in the house where Sergei Korolev was born - in 1970 was opened a memorial house-museum of Academician Sergei Korolev. After many years with the direct participation of Arvid Pallo, assistant-designer of Sergei Korolev in the design of spacecraft, in the Museum of Cosmonautics of Sergei Korolev in Zhitomir created exhibition "Space". Because of Arvid Pallo the museum got many important exhibits as module "Vostok", spacecraft orbital module "Soyuz" and others. It is also interesting objects are the "Lunokhod-2", samples of astronauts food, spacesuits.

Unique object of the exhibition are samples of lunar soil (regolith) from the Sea of Plenty (only 18 particles) that brought by Soviet automatic interplanetary station "Luna-16" to the Earth. Total weight of the column of lunar soil was 101 grams. The exhibition presents only a small part of the collected lunar soil.

Another interesting exhibit is R-12 missiles. In 1962 R-12 missiles were at the center of an international "Cuban Missile Crisis" after Second World War. After the victory of the Cuban revolution there was a real threat of American invasion to Cuba. Under such conditions Soviet government decided to place secretly in Cuba medium-range missiles R-12. One of the arguments that decision was the fact that the American missiles "Jupiter" and "Thor" while deployed in Turkey and Italy could reach the territory of Soviet Union in just 10 minutes. The operation called "Anadyr". Under conditions of strict secrecy the R-12 together with the staff were brought to Cuba. The situation has reached a high pitch but Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy were able in time to understand the danger of nuclear war and the negotiations have reached a compromise: the Soviet Union takes its missiles from Cuba and the United States - from Turkey and Italy and reject the military invasion of Cuba.

Nowadays achievements of Sergei Korolev maintained by modern designers around the world. In addition to governmental programs there are commercial companies developing reusable spacecrafts to send tourists into the Space. Currently only used for the purpose of space tourism is the International Space Station (ISS). The flights are operated by Russian "Soyuz" in the Russian segment of the ISS. Flight Operations tourists do "Russian Federal Space Agency" and "Space Adventures". "Space Adventures" cooperating with "Russian Federal Space Agency" since 2001. All with the help of this company in the space already visited seven tourists - one of whom Charles Simonyi - twice. The cost of travel to the orbit was 20-23 million of US dollars. Since July 2007 the cost of space travel has increased from 20 to 30-40 million of US dollars. In addition was announced a new service - exit of space tourist into open Space. It cost 15 million of US dollars.

Dennis Tito - the first space tourist who pay for his flight into the Space around 20 million USD in 2001.

In 2005 "Russian Federal Space Agency" and "Space Adventures" have signed a memorandum on the selection of investors and non-professional astronauts for commercial project of flight around the Moon. "Space Adventures" is granted exclusive rights for marketing and RSC "Energia" is entitled to technical execution of the project. The flights will be done on the modified "Soyuz". Implementation of the project is expected in the next five years.

The most significant alternative leaders of orbital tourism and space tourism: Virgin Galactic, Bigelow Aerospace, SpaceX, Excalibur Almaz, Orbital Sciences.

You could visit Zhitomir Sights - Sergei Korolev Space Museum with Ukraine Tour West Ring

Pavel Korsun | Ukraine tours travel guide


Pavel Korsun
Ukraine and Kiev tour guide

Kiev Travel Guide
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